What is COPD?

The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) a project initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the World Health Organization (WHO) defines COPD as “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a common preventable and treatable disease, is characterized by airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients."

What is sleep Apnea?

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder that often requires lifelong care. The key features in adults include:

  • Obstructive apneas, hypopneas or respiratory effort related arousals
  • Daytime symptoms attributable to disrupted sleep, such as sleepiness, fatigue or poor concentration
  • Signs of disturbed sleep, such as snoring, restlessness or resuscitative snorts

What is pulmonary hypertension?

Systolic pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mm Hg at rest or > 30 mm Hg during exercise, leading to progressive and sustained increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and culminating in right ventricular failure.

What is diabetes?

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) issued diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus in 1997, with follow-up in 2003 and 2010. The diagnosis is based on one of four abnormalities: glycated hemoglobin (A1C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), random elevated glucose with symptoms, or abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

What is congestive heart failure?

Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical syndrome representing the end-stage of a number of different cardiac diseases. It can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. There are two mechanisms by which reduced cardiac output and HF occur: systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction.

What is metabolic syndrome?

The co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors for both type 2 diabetes and CVD (abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) suggested the existence of a metabolic syndrome. Other names applied to this constellation of findings have included syndrome X and the insulin resistance syndrome.